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December 20, 2012
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PE: The Impact of Color

Thu Dec 20, 2012, 11:06 AM


1. - WHAT IS COLOR?


Color is the aspect of things that is caused by differing qualities of light being reflected or emitted by them, as received by the human eye and processed by the human brain. It is a function of light and biology, not an exact science, no two people can see it exactly the same.

The human eye and brain together translate light into color. Light receptors within the eye transmit messages to the brain, which produces the familiar sensations of color. Newton observed that color is not inherent in objects. Rather, the surface of an object reflects some colors and absorbs all the others. We perceive only the reflected colors. Thus, red is not "in" an apple. The surface of the apple is reflecting the wavelengths we see as red and absorbing all the rest. An object appears white when it reflects all wavelengths and black when it absorbs them all.



"Colors are the deeds of light, its deeds and sufferings."

(Johann Wolfgang von Goethe)



Color by FishEye-lens


Red, green and blue are the additive primary colors of the color spectrum. Combining balanced amounts of red, green and blue lights also produces pure white. By varying the amount of red, green and blue light, a wide range of the colors in the visible spectrum can be produced.

The human eye can perceive more variations in warmer colors than cooler ones. About 8% of men and 1% of women have some form of color impairment. Most people with color deficiencies aren't aware that the colors they perceive as identical appear different to other people. Most still perceive color, but certain colors are transmitted to the brain differently.



"Color is a powerful physical, biological, and psychological force. When less color and less intense color is present, trace amounts and subtle differences become highly significant and are strongly felt. "

(John Paul Caponigro)



Color Me Rainbow by SubhadipKoley 






2. - HOW DOES COLOR AFFECT US?


Color is light and light is energy. Scientists have found out that actual physiological changes take place in human beings when they are exposed to certain colors. Colors can stimulate, excite, depress, tranquilize, increase appetite and create a feeling of warmth or coolness. This is known as chromodynamics. 

Experiencing color is both objective and subjective - our personal and cultural associations affect this experience. Colors are seen as warm or cool mainly because of long-held (and often universal) associations. Yellow, orange and red are associated with the heat of sun and fire; blue, green and violet with the coolness of leaves, sea and the sky. Warm colors seem closer to the viewer than cool colors, but vivid cool colors can overwhelm light and subtle warm colors. Using warm colors for foreground and cool colors for background enhances the perception of depth.



"It is the eye of ignorance that assigns a fixed and unchangeable color to every object; beware of this stumbling block."

(Paul Gauguin)



chloe by markdumanon



Although red, yellow and orange are in general considered high-arousal colors and blue, green and most violets are low-arousal hues, the brilliance, darkness and lightness of a color can alter the psychological message. While a light blue-green appears to be tranquil, wet and cool, a brilliant turquoise, often associated with a lush tropical ocean setting, will be more exciting to the eye. The psychological association of a color is often more meaningful than the visual experience.



"Red is a color I've felt very strongly about. Maybe red is a very Indian color, maybe it's one of those things that I grew up with and recognize at some other level."

(Anish Kapoor)



like wildfire by agnes-cecile


Colors act upon the body as well as the mind. :bulletred: Red has been shown to stimulate the senses, raise the blood pressure, increase the appetite and is also associated with danger and anger. :bulletblue: Blue, on the other hand, calls to mind feelings of calmness or serenity. It is often described as peaceful, tranquil, secure and orderly, but it can create feelings of sadness or aloofness. Blue lowers the pulse rate and body temperature. :bulletgreen: Green is a cool color that symbolizes nature, represents health, good luck, inspiration but also jealousy. It is thought to relieve stress and helps heal. :bulletyellow: Yellow is a bright color, often described as cheery and warm, but quite fatiguing to the eye. While it's stimulating and represents energy, it can create feelings of frustration or anger. :bulletpurple: Purple represents nobility, royalty, wealth, wisdom and spirituality. Purple does not often occur in nature, it can sometimes appear exotic or artificial. This color, especially shades of violet, will definitely make a statement. 




"What a horrible thing yellow is."

(Edgar Degas)



Glow by sagittariusgallery


Brown is a natural color that evokes a sense of strength and reliability, bringing to mind feelings of warmth, comfort and security. Brown is considered a neutral color. Orange is an energetic color, bringing out excitement and enthusiasm. It is often used to draw attention, it's easier on the eyes as yellow but not as bold as red. Pink is essentially a light red, it's often associated with love and romance. It is thought to have a calming effect.



"With all their damned talk of modern painting, I've been forty years discovering that the queen of all colours is black!"

(Pierre-Auguste Renoire)




Danza 1 by alfhernandez






Black and White are not colors from the physical point of view, the first one absorbing all light in the color spectrum, the other reflecting all. Black is often used as a symbol of menace and evil, but it is also popular as an indicator of power. In many cultures, it associates with death and mourning; in ancient Egypt, it represented life and rebirth. In fashion, black is used for its slimming quality and associates with elegance. White represents purity and innocence, also hope. It is described as cold, bland and sterile. White helps reduce any nagging feelings of disappointment or drudge.





"White is poison to a picture: use it only in highlights."

(Peter Paul Rubens)



  watercolor, Summer water by HitomiOsanai 





3. - COLOR HARMONY



In art as well as music, harmony comes from a pleasing arrangement of the parts. The science of color harmony categorizes colors and determines harmonious groupings, but where science becomes art is in knowing how to use these colors, in what proportions and in what order.

In color and music, contrasts intensify each other. Complementary colors bring out the attributes of each other. White becomes brighter on a black background, blue enhances the warmth of orange; opposite hues are especially attention-getting. This hue contrast can cause tension in the image, if you are using fully saturated colors. Complementary colors can be brought into harmony by reducing the saturation or by mixing a little of each color with the other.





"Why do two colors, put one next to the other, sing? Can one really explain this? No."

(Pablo Picasso)



color of the wind by hayzy





This tension is at its strongest when large areas of complementary colors touch, this effect is known as simultaneous contrast. For the most part, it's visually disturbing and should be avoided. Separating large areas of complementary colors with a thin line of neutral white, gray or black will diminish the effect.

Varying the saturation or brightness of a color can cause light and dark contrasts. By simply working with complementary and analogous colors, a harmonious color scheme can easily be created. Pay attention to the saturation and brightness of the colors to prevent unexpected contrasts or to create intentional ones. If two colors are equal in saturation and proportions, the dominant color will be the one whose brightness is furthest from the background's. Similarly, if two colors have identical brightness, the dominant color will be the one whose saturation deviates more from that of the background.





"In order to change a color it is enough to change the color of its background.."

(Michel Eugene Chevreul)



How does color impact you, personally? What makes you choose one color over another? What's your favorite color combination?


Share your thoughts in the comments below :heart:




Portrait of a Clown XXIV by sythesite Poppy... by Takir 254 Ann Siang Road, Singapore by tilenti
398 by yag65 Compassion Series: Invisible World by jialu



"Color possesses me. I don't have to pursue it. It will possess me always, I know it. That is the meaning of this happy hour: Color and I are one. I am a painter."

(Paul Klee)

:frail:



Article written for #projecteducate's Community Week.

Resources:

Color Think Tank - What is color
Color Psychology
Art Therapy
11 psychological effects of color
Wikipedia
J.W.Goethe - Theory of Colours
Miroslav Lamač - Thoughts of modern painters (ODEON Prague, 1989)
Add a Comment:
 
:iconmaygusta:
MAYGUSTA Featured By Owner Jun 23, 2014  Hobbyist Writer
My favourite pieces of art are always ethereal with plenty of colours. When I started to use colour in my pictures, I was fearful and everything was bland. Now, I thrive using every colour in the spectrum, but dark turquoise, purple, and pink are three favourites I see popping up again and again.
Reply
:iconmothedri:
Mothedri Featured By Owner Jun 20, 2014  Hobbyist General Artist
If I see something painted with purple, dark purple, I usually like it (because is one of my favourite colours) and maybe if the same picture was made with another colour, I wouldn't pay attention... I think colours are powerful:)

Great article!!
Reply
:iconfelizias:
Felizias Featured By Owner Jun 19, 2014  Hobbyist Digital Artist
It is true that if you are sensible to colors and wear darker clothes are more likely to be depressed than when you are wearing bright colors.
Also, how others treat you partly depends on the colors you wear. :) (Random is random! :D)
Reply
:iconphunkymnkcreations:
PhunkyMnkCreations Featured By Owner Jun 18, 2014   Artisan Crafter
Wonderful article Heart I took a color and design class in college it was awhile back and I loved it. This is a nice article well done :) (Smile) 
Reply
:icontouchofthesoul:
touchofthesoul Featured By Owner Jun 17, 2014  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
very nice article!
Reply
:iconschwarzeneulen:
SchwarzenEulen Featured By Owner Jun 17, 2014  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Nice article! I only know a little about color harmony, so I'm glad I happened to see this one. This can help with studying other people's styles and trying to start a new one for myself. :3
Reply
:iconschwarzeneulen:
SchwarzenEulen Featured By Owner Jun 17, 2014  Hobbyist Digital Artist
And one of my favorite color combos is a dark red and brown.
Reply
:iconpenis-jam:
Penis-Jam Featured By Owner Edited Jun 17, 2014  Student General Artist
I loved the part about color harmony, since I know very little about it.

Unsaturated greens and reds together are my favorite, along with purples and oranges.  :D 
Reply
:iconxadrea:
Xadrea Featured By Owner Jun 17, 2014  Professional Traditional Artist
Beautiful entry :clap: I love the color meaning analysis and all the quotes you peppered in there too :D I have a pretty good grasp of very saturated color (like burnt umber and cyan) but I'm working on getting better at describing temperature in colors like white and tonal variations in greys and other neutrals :D
Reply
:iconfinnisterre:
Finnisterre Featured By Owner Jan 22, 2013  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Thank you for writing such a clear, concise analysis of colour, its impact, and its possible pitfalls :) The parts about colour harmony and simultaneous contrast were particularly interesting; I didn't know the name for that particular effect or its cause. Your article's definitely given me some ideas to mull over, and I'll have to try out your suggestion to use neutral tones to separate out areas of complementary colours. The artists' quotes were a fantastic, insghtful addition too. Thanks for writing this, it was a pleasure to read! :D
Reply
:iconurus-28:
Urus-28 Featured By Owner Dec 23, 2012  Hobbyist Digital Artist
I know it's a detail but...
"By varying the amount of red, green and blue light, all of the colors in the visible spectrum can be produced."
I'm sorry but this is not correct, just look at a IEC colour diagram [link] and you will see that a triangle cannot reproduce the full visible scale of colours.
Of course it's the same with subtractive colour system used in painting (CMYK system), not all colours can be reproduced.

But ok, this does not change the quality of this article :thumbsup:
Reply
:iconjane-beata:
jane-beata Featured By Owner Dec 23, 2012  Professional Traditional Artist
Indeed, let's say that if a trichromatic model cannot produce all, it can produce useful and a very wide range of color.

Thank you for reading :)
Reply
:iconurus-28:
Urus-28 Featured By Owner Dec 23, 2012  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Yes I fully agree with that =)
And it's also far easier to understand than a model trying to replicate the full IEC diagram :lol:
Reply
:iconjane-beata:
jane-beata Featured By Owner Dec 23, 2012  Professional Traditional Artist
Article is now corrected - thank you for your help ^^
Reply
:iconurus-28:
Urus-28 Featured By Owner Dec 23, 2012  Hobbyist Digital Artist
No problem :peace:
Reply
:iconairelavart:
AirelavArt Featured By Owner Dec 21, 2012  Professional Traditional Artist
Beautiful Jane, congrats, love the citation of paul klee :)
Reply
:iconjane-beata:
jane-beata Featured By Owner Dec 21, 2012  Professional Traditional Artist
Me too, tremendously! Thank you for reading :heart:
Reply
:iconastrikos:
Astrikos Featured By Owner Dec 21, 2012   General Artist
Amazing article!
Reply
:iconjane-beata:
jane-beata Featured By Owner Dec 21, 2012  Professional Traditional Artist
Thank you dear :heart:
Reply
:iconastrikos:
Astrikos Featured By Owner Dec 22, 2012   General Artist
:hug:
Omg the Christmas hat on your avatar! :love:
Reply
:iconwick-y:
wick-y Featured By Owner Dec 21, 2012  Student General Artist
This looks very helpful. c:
Reply
:iconjane-beata:
jane-beata Featured By Owner Dec 21, 2012  Professional Traditional Artist
Thank you for reading :heart:
Reply
:iconneonparrot:
neonparrot Featured By Owner Dec 21, 2012  Student Digital Artist
I love cyan and magenta together. But if one of them is bright, another should be more pale, because they two can look quite irritating.
And the article is great C:
Reply
:iconjane-beata:
jane-beata Featured By Owner Dec 21, 2012  Professional Traditional Artist
True what you're saying, it's a great example of simultaneous contrast, they "scream" one over another and confuse our brain.

Thank you for reading (:
Reply
:iconsraffa:
SRaffa Featured By Owner Dec 20, 2012  Professional General Artist
Powerfully articulated and elegantly presented; nice work!
Reply
:iconjane-beata:
jane-beata Featured By Owner Dec 21, 2012  Professional Traditional Artist
Thank you Sam :tighthug:

:frail:
Reply
:iconsraffa:
SRaffa Featured By Owner Dec 21, 2012  Professional General Artist
:cuddle:
Reply
:iconaura-dawn:
Aura-Dawn Featured By Owner Dec 20, 2012  Hobbyist Photographer
Though you wouldn't know it from my gallery as don't tend to publish pictures in the colors of choice but keep them to myself. The last picture is the closest that come to expressing colors of choice. The colors that work really well together for me are black woven with blue, again woven with wine. "These three colors set off a mixture of emotions that drive me.

Nice article, though in the end it is the receptor that determines how a color effects them.
Reply
:iconjane-beata:
jane-beata Featured By Owner Dec 21, 2012  Professional Traditional Artist
Indeed it is, thank you for reading (:
Reply
:iconaura-dawn:
Aura-Dawn Featured By Owner Dec 21, 2012  Hobbyist Photographer
Indeed do read what you write and usually comment. Am not an artist of your medium and you have so many followers that is, doubt that you notice that read what you post.
Reply
:iconjane-beata:
jane-beata Featured By Owner Dec 21, 2012  Professional Traditional Artist
I always read comments on my articles and try to reply as many as possible - the idea of an article is usually discussion that is suppose to follow, one can learn a lot from comments and personal experience of other artists.
Reply
:iconaura-dawn:
Aura-Dawn Featured By Owner Dec 21, 2012  Hobbyist Photographer
You always have responded to mine. Well usually. Just the one where requested a critique did you not. But you know what. The only serious critique ever got was from you. For that one, I thank you.
Reply
:iconlior-art:
Lior-Art Featured By Owner Dec 20, 2012  Hobbyist General Artist
Interesting and useful, really :)
Reply
:iconjane-beata:
jane-beata Featured By Owner Dec 21, 2012  Professional Traditional Artist
Thank you for stopping by & commenting :heart:
Reply
:iconsimplysilent:
SimplySilent Featured By Owner Dec 20, 2012
Beautiful article~! :clap:
Reply
:iconjane-beata:
jane-beata Featured By Owner Dec 21, 2012  Professional Traditional Artist
Thank you for reading :heart:
Reply
:iconrlkirkland:
rlkirkland Featured By Owner Dec 20, 2012  Hobbyist Writer
Wonderfully presented... Thanks! :sun:
Reply
:iconjane-beata:
jane-beata Featured By Owner Dec 20, 2012  Professional Traditional Artist
Thank you for reading :heart:
Reply
:iconjamminjo:
JamminJo Featured By Owner Dec 20, 2012  Hobbyist Photographer
Wonderful article :love:

I have learned and have a much better understanding of how colours impact each other :nod:

Thank you so much :heart:

Jo
Reply
:iconjane-beata:
jane-beata Featured By Owner Dec 20, 2012  Professional Traditional Artist
Thank you for the support and reading, Jo :tighthug:

:santa: :rudolph:
Reply
:iconjamminjo:
JamminJo Featured By Owner Dec 20, 2012  Hobbyist Photographer
My pleasure :tighthug:

:icondw817santa1plz:
Reply
:icondeaconstrucktor:
DeaconStrucktor Featured By Owner Dec 20, 2012  Hobbyist General Artist
Thank you for this investigation into colour theory and for the list of additional resources. It definitely pays to understand the symbolism of colours so that one's colour choices don't end up fighting against the meaning of one's work.

I'm particularly fond of green as an all-purpose colour. As you mentioned, it is symbolic of life (not only new growth, but also decay). It is also calming, without the sense of sadness that is commonly associated with blue. I find myself using it quite often in conjunction with yellows and oranges, to evoke a sense of spring and summer in the natural world. It also works well when mixed with other colours for use in shadow areas.
Reply
:iconjane-beata:
jane-beata Featured By Owner Dec 20, 2012  Professional Traditional Artist
It does, I had no idea where I end up when I started to write the article, it has taken me on quite a journey (:

Green is a wonderful color, possessing everything you mention, positivity just shines from it. :shamrock:
Reply
:iconlintu47:
lintu47 Featured By Owner Dec 20, 2012  Hobbyist General Artist
Great article :clap:
Reply
:iconjane-beata:
jane-beata Featured By Owner Dec 20, 2012  Professional Traditional Artist
Thank you for taking a look, Precious :tighthug:
Reply
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